Keywords linked to the theme :
The rapid development of alternative local food networks represents a reaction to the industrialization and productivism of globalized food production systems. These food production and distribution networks differ from the dominant systems in proposing a short distribution circuit, limiting the number of intermediaries between the farmer and the consumer to one or zero. They are based on relationships that are usually associated with specific geographic locations and ethical frameworks that seek to address a whole series of questions, including transport of foodstuffs and the use of agrochemicals, human health and animal well-being, (non)ethical practices (at the local and global levels) and exploiting labour power. The three key principles of environmental, economic and social sustainability are taken into account.
The term fair trade emerged in Europe as an attempt to introduce justice and solidarity into trade between northern and southern countries. For thousands of producers in southern countries, it has been and remains an excellent opportunity to obtain better quality production, better prices, better working conditions and improved quality of life for them and their families. Fair trade should not be reduced to a simple sales strategy, since it can also drive sustainable local production, decent jobs, equitable relation between the sexes, etc. By promoting the creation of networks and organization between small-scale local producers, placing a higher value on work and environmental protection and appealing to consumers to make responsible purchasing choices part of daily life, it gives a more supportive basis to the relations involved in production, sales and consumption.
Tourism provides a vital source of income for many developing countries, yet economic success often comes at the expense of the environment and local populations. Mass tourism threatens biodiversity, damages ecosystems and causes violations of the rights of workers, minorities and local communities. Corporations, rather than local people reap the financial rewards. Local communities and social entrepreneurs all over the developing world are setting up community-based tourism projects.