Christopher Houghton Budd

Christopher Houghton Budd is an economic and monetary historian with a doctorate in banking and international finance (Cass Business School, London). As director of the Centre for Associative Economics he works independently in many contexts ranging from mainstream to “green,” from central banks to organic farms. He has made a special study of the economics works of Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner.

Houghton Budd writes frequently on economic affairs and has published four books: Prelude in Economics (1979), Of Wheat and Gold (1988), The Metamorphosis of Capitalism (2003), and Rare Albion: A Monetary Allegory 2005). They are available online from or in the U.S. from

Analysis document/working paper/article